Wisdom teeth, third molars

Wisdom teeth are the last to appear, to the posterior oral cavity and are also called third molars. They appear between 17 and 24 years of age, although it may occur sooner or later, or they may be missing. Most people have four wisdom teeth, one on each side of the arch.

The most common situation is one in which the third molar cannot penetrate the gum, being only half out and often causes pain in that area, extended to the ear. Mouth opening becomes painful and the gums become inflamed and hurtful.

In second place the most common wisdom tooth problems are represented by dental decays. For two reasons: this tooth has a poor mineralization and because due to its position it is hard to keep it clean by brushing it. Sometimes the wisdom teeth don’t even appear; they remain stuck in the gum and remain in the bone. And here we have several situations. It is possible that this condition to have no symptoms and not to bother the persons with this situation at all, but it is also possible that the teeth have an oblique position, pushing into other teeth and causing dental decays on its root.

The teeth can also penetrate the gum, but came in an abnormal position: more oriented towards the cheek or the tongue.

Complications of impacted molars:

– Gum disease – Bacteria and food remains can get stuck under the gum, causing infection.

– Crooked teeth – tooth may push other teeth, damaging them or moving them.

– Dental decay – Being a place difficult to access, wisdom teeth are difficult to clean properly and are prone to decay.

– Cysts – Tooth’s crown develops in the jaw, may fill with fluid, forming a cyst and then affecting the jaw, teeth and nerves.

The situation of third molars can be seen very easily on dental radiography. The doctor will determine if you have impacted molars, if extraction is needed. Usually it is better for extraction to take place in an early age, before they anchor the roots.

Extraction is recommended if the jaw is not large enough to allow the molars to grow in a good alignment for chewing and crushing food, when the teeth only partially appeared (in this case, bacteria can enter around the tooth, causing infection. Partially erupted teeth are more likely to develop gum disease). If the molars are not aligned correctly and crowd other teeth or nerves extraction is also recommended to reduce the risk of tumors and cysts formation. Sometimes the extraction of wisdom teeth is recommended before installation of braces for teeth straightening.

Removal of wisdom teeth depends on their position. The extraction for a completely erupted wisdom tooth is like the extraction of any other, but if the tooth is under the gum in the jaw, surgery is needed. Often the tooth is extracted piece by piece, to reduce the amount of bone lost. If extraction is more complicated, it is performed in a hospital and general anesthesia may be necessary.

Extraction operation will be performed by a specialist in maxillofacial surgery. It starts with local anesthesia, given as injections. Then the doctor makes an incision on the gum to expose the tooth and jaw. If the impacted tooth is partially erupted, it is extracted with forceps, but if it is in the jaw completely, it is cut into pieces which are removed one by one. Finally surgery is sutured and compresses are placed to control bleeding.

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