Placental abruption

The placenta is the first blanket of a baby. The placenta is a structure that develops during the pregnancy in order to nourish the baby . If the placenta peels away before the birth of the baby, he or she can suffer of suffocation, and can be deprived of nutrients.
The mother is also affected by bleeding. This condition is called placental abruption and is rather uncommon. Placental abruption is an emergency because both mother and child are in danger and they need medical attention .

This situation occurs in 0.4 to 1.5% of all pregnancies and there are some factors of risk that can lead to such a problem . Among them are : the age of the mother , polyhydramnios, vasculitis, tobacco use, hypertension, abdominal trauma, cocaine use, placental ischemia.

After 20 weeks of pregnancy unfortunately can begin the placental abruption. The signs of such a situation are : abdominal pain that starts suddenly , back pain, vaginal bleeding, the amount is various (it is possible to have a placental abruption without bleeding ) , uterine contractions.

The cause of placental abruption is often unknown but as a rule, this occurs after an abdominal trauma or when the umbilical cord is too short or when the fluid that surrounds the baby is rapidly lost .

The treatment differs according to the situation . If the pregnancy is not near term and the bleeding does not threaten the life of the mother or child then bed rest is recommended . In this way the mother and the baby can be monitored and rapidly treated .

If this is the case of a near term pregnancy or there is nonreassuring fetal heart rate pattern, then cesarean delivery is usually indicated. In some cases oxytocin may be given to accelerate vaginal delivery but these depends on the stage of labor.

Unfortunately there are some complications like stillbirth, maternal shock, the fetus being deprived of oxygen that this condition can develop . One may think that after the birth of the baby the problems are over, but this is not so easy . If bleeding from the place where the placenta was attached can’t be controlled after the birth, then the uterus may be removed .

If a doctor suspects that a woman has placental abruption than he will try to set a diagnosis by blood tests and ultrasounds. However some placental abruptions can’t be confirmed until after delivery.

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