Depending on the way that femoral head and the acetabulum interact the traumatic hip dislocation may be: central, posterior, anterior. The posterior ones are the most common. Besides the dislocation, other condition may be present like : fractures of the femur on the same side, soft tissue injuries (muscles), sciatic nerve injury.
The patient will feel pain in the hip area and total functional impotence of the lower limb. Numbness or paresthesias may appear. Because a traumatic hip dislocation happens after a major trauma, the patient may not be able to name the exactly place where he feels pain, he may be shocked or he may feel different pains in different parts of the body.
That’s why before diagnosing a person with traumatic hip dislocation, his vital functions must be under control. After this is done, is compulsory to have an examination of the pelvic zone. The inspection will reveal in case of anterior dislocation an externally rotated and little flexed hip and in case of posterior dislocation an internally rotated hip.
Also the pelvis has to be palpated in search for deformities. The motion of the patient will be painful and difficult to realize. When someone has traumatic hip dislocation, the sciatic nerve will be damaged. There were registered: around the ankle loss of reflex, the foot is without sensations. The femoral nerve may also have suffered injuries and the patient may have no sensations over the thigh. Also the pulse may be lost or other vascular problems may be tracked like hematoma.
The treatment should be quickly introduced because frequency of complications rises proportionally with the delay in reducing the dislocation. To reduce any dislocation of hip, the femoral head must be moved on the reverse of the injury. But before doing this radiographs are necessary . For most cases is indicated orthopedic reduction under general anesthesia. In case of simple dislocation plaster immobilization is recommended. Is hard to tell exactly the period of immobilization, but it may be needed for about 3 weeks. In order to relive the pain analgesics may be used.
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