Heat exhaustion occurs in people who work at high temperatures and is partially a result of loss of salt and water. Patient accuses headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, weakness, irritability and cramps. On examination the patient is diaphoretic, has postural hypotension and body temperature is normal or minimally elevated.
Heat exhaustion treatment consists of rest in cool environment, accelerating heat loss by evaporation with mechanical means) and replace lost fluids with solutions containing salt. If the patient has no blood shed, balanced salt solution, available on the market, is preferred. If the patient is vomiting or is hemodynamically unstable 1-2 liters of intravenous sodium chloride solution is required (saline) 0.9%. patient must avoid physical efforts in environmental hyperthermia for another 2-3 days.
Under normal conditions, the control mechanisms of the body – skin and sweating – adapt to heat. However, these systems can fail when exposed to high temperatures, prolonged periods of time.
Heat cramps are painful muscle spasms. It usually occurs after physical exertion or deep sweating. Abdominal muscles and those who use them during exercise are most affected. For heat cramps:
Rest briefly, calm yourself.
Eat salty foods.
Drink water with a teaspoon of salt per 250 ml water.
Simptoms of heat exhaustion are high body temperature, fainting, rapid heart rate, low blood pressure, skin pale gray, clammy skin, cold and sickness. Symptoms often begin suddenly, sometimes after excessive sweating and inadequate fluid intake.
If you suspect heat exhaustion, shelter in a shady spot or room equipped with air conditioning. Then lie back and lift your feet. Try to open too tight clothing.
Tips on how to overcome problems caused by heat:
Do not expose to sunlight. Especially those prone (those feeble, tired and those having problems with alcohol), avoid going out during the hottest day, from noon to 4 pm
Remember that elderly and children are more sensitive to radiation increased calories.
Prevention of the major radiation accident, heat stroke, is avoiding exposure to sun along lunch time, especially in June and July, when the amount of radiation reaches its maximum.
Limit your physical outdoor activity!
Dress appropriately. Wear light colored clothing, light, wide,. Protect your head with a white wide-brimmed hat, allowing air circulation. Drink plenty of fluids.
Avoid excess alcohol and caffeine.
Avoid hot and heavy meals.
Sodium heat exhaustion is due to mineral loss during excessive sweating, increased by those produced by vomiting and diarrhea following the collapse of calories. Fortunately, this condition is reversible if fluid (4-8 liters / day) and sodium (20-30 g salt / day) of the human body are restored; otherwise it evolves negatively, by excessive elimination of salts Na, K, Ca and Mg.
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