Gum diseases are represented by bacterial infections of the tissue and bone that surround and support the teeth. They also called periodontal diseases.


Gingivitis is a disease that affects only the gums (the tissue surrounding the teeth).

Gum disease is progressive and extends below the insertion of the gums, affecting the tissues supporting the teeth and bone.

Gingivitis manifests through red inflamed gums, which bleed easily when brushing. Because gingiva disease usually is not painful, most people do not request treatment.

Periodontitis occurs when gum disorders progresses. Gums detach from teeth, leaving deep spaces where bacteria can grow and destroy the bone in which teeth are fixed. Gingivas are withdrawn resulting in the appearance of long teeth. Teeth become mobile; they can fall or be extracted.

Gum disorders are provoked by bacterial increase on teeth and gums. They are found in plaque. Not removed in time, this plaque becomes sticky deposit on teeth.

The toxins irritate the gingiva, causing swelling and bleeding.

Plaque can be transformed into a mineral deposit called tartar that irritate gums and lead to their detachment from the teeth.

While bacteria are the direct cause of gingiva disease, a number of other factors affect gum health. The risk of developing gum disease increases in the following cases:

  • Smokers or people who chew tobacco
  • Gum disorders present in family history (other family members have such disorders, there is a genetic component)
  • Women who undergo hormonal changes at puberty, menopause or pregnancy
  • Certain medicines such as pills, antidepressants and drugs for heart disorders



Gingivitis appears when bacteria stays on the teeth and gums, forming plaque.

Plaque and acids produce redness and swelling of the gums.

Plaque can develop into tartar (mineralized deposit) that affects the gums but can be extracted by the dentist.

Untreated gingivitis can develop in to periodontitis, gums retire from the teeth. By affecting the bone, teeth become mobile and can fall or have to be extracted.

A recent study on a group of elders showed a direct link between heart disease and bacteria that cause gingiva disease. The relationship between these disorders is not fully known yet.

Your dentist will determine the schedule for checking and polishing. Proficient cleaning and scaling extracts bacteria, which cannot be removed just by brushing and flossing. Once a person has gum disease, that person must visit the doctor regularly.

They may prescribe antibiotics to fight infection. It is applied directly to the gum, swallow or rinse the gums, being in the form of mouthwash. They also recommend antibacterial toothpaste, which used regularly, reduces plaque and gingivitis.

Gingivitis which is not treated or does not react to treatment becomes a more serious problem. This requires immediate treatment to eliminate the infection and to avoid the destruction of the teeth and gums. It needs a long care and keeping the mouth healthy.

During a dental checkup your dentist can determine the cause of gingivitis and may recommend and perform appropriate treatment.

Because the most common cause of gingivitis is the bacteria, which require a professional cleaning can consist of subgingival and supragingival scaling (in people who have scale), accompanied by professional cleaning or cleaning with abrasive powder.

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