Atrial TachycardiaAtrial Tachycardia is a condion that can occur to persons with normal hearts and to those with structurally abnormal hearts, including congenital heart disease. Atrial Tachycardia can also occur after surgery for solving a valvular heart disease.
Atrial Tachycardia is a disturbance rhythm that appear in the atria.
Atrial Tachycardia is divided in two groups: focal atrial tachycardia and the reentrant atrial tachycardias. The first tipe of atrial tachycardia appears from the pulmonary veins, ostium of the coronary sinus, intra-atrial septum or the crista terminalis. The second group occurs in persons with heart diseases and after incisions in the atria. Atrial tachycardia can be divided into groups taking into consideration the triggered activity or others pathophysiologic mechanisms (due to delayed after-depolarizations which are oscillations of low amplitude that occur at the end of the action potential. Also in case of digitalis intoxication this case of atrial tachycardia may appear ), enhanced automaticity (observed both in patients with heart conditions and in normal patients ) .
In general, when Atrial Tachycardia occurs in patients who had cardiac and also had a prior heart disease , the tachycardia is life-threatening . The atrial tachycardia may happen during exercise, or alcohol ingestion, drug use, metabolic disturbance, and it is associated with automaticity or triggered activity.
The occurrence of Atrial Tachycardia has no relation with race or sex. It is relatively rare, between 5-15 % of all supraventricular tachycardias and it is correlated with congenital heart disease. In patient with no previous heart conditions , the mortlity in case of atrial t achycardia is low .
At a physical examination, the first abnormality is a rapid pulse rate. In general the pulse is regular but irregular pulse is reported in rapid atrial tachycardias with variable AV conduction. In patients with light-headedness, or presyncope or fatigue, blood pressure may be low.
The diagnosis of Atrail Tachycardia is differential because the diagnosis of diagnosis of supraventricular (SVT) is diferential and it includes : atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation, atrial tachycardia, sinus tachycardia. In order to differentiate between this diagnosis, the doctor will need an ECG analysis of the tachycardia for P wave activity.
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