Botox Injections in Plastic Surgery

Nowadays, the most common and preferred type of cosmetic procedure remains has become the infection with botulinum neurotoxin. It is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum which is a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium and has be classified in eight types of distinct botulinum neurotoxins named A, B, C1, C2, D, F, and G. Seven of these types have been linked with paralysis and types A, B, E, and sometimes F and G were associated with botulism in humans, which is a neuroparalytic illness, bilateral symmetric and descending from the primary stages, that will be caused by this neurotoxin.

In 1817-1822, the German poet and physician Justinus Kerner, wrote a full description on the clinical symptoms that a person may suffer when will be infected with food borne botulism. He observed an increased food poisoning in 1795-1813 in Stuttgart, caused by a general economic hardship which was linked with the Napoleonic wars thus leading to a decline in hygienic measures when concerning food handling and production. This type of illness was named as ‘sausage poisoning’ after being observed symptoms when spoiled sausage was ingested, the world ‘botulism’ being known from the Latin ‘botulus’ which means sausage. In this description we will find Kerners’ notes on deducing that this type of toxin will act in several ways but the most common will be by interrupting the signal transmission within the sympathetic nervous system and peripheral, which would leave sensory transmission intact, suggesting a hypothesis that this type of toxin may be used on the future as a possible therapeutic treatment, when further studies shall e made.

Emile-Pierre van Ermengen, a microbiologist, discovered in 1895 that there is some type of association with an anaerobic bacterium during a huge outbreak of botulism in that time.

Currently, botulism toxins are used to treat a several large pallet of illnesses that will include hemifacial spasms, strabismus, spasticity, focal dystonias (for example torticollis, limb dystonia, writer’s cramp), tics, tremor, heperhidrosis, synkinesis, sphincter dysfunction and achalasia. It has been approved y the US Food and Drug Administration FDA in treating a large amount of illness although this type of treatment could e potentially dangerous, if not administered correctly. All in all, Botox will be used in cosmetic medical actions and at the same time as a treatment for various illnesses but its effect will last only six months depending solely on the quantity and it can become quite expensive.

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