Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (insulin independent) is an endocrine disease characterized by metabolic abnormalities, especially of carbohydrate metabolism.


Diabetes occurs when the pancreas secretes insufficient amounts of insulin or how the body uses insulin is deficient. Insulin is the hormone that provides cellular energy needs by using glucose (sugar).

Another role of this hormone is to store excess sugar in muscles, liver and adipose tissue.

When insulin secretion is deficient or if there is resistance to its action in target tissues, blood sugar (blood glucose, blood glucose) is too large and can not use tissues for energy production. If blood sugar is persistently increased complications arise in the eye, heart, blood vessels, nerves and kidneys.

Glucose control is the most effective prevention of complications of type 2 diabetes, particularly of cardiovascular complications. Most patients with type 2 diabetes can carry out normal daily activities when they fail to control blood sugar levels through exercise, proper diet and hypoglycemic drugs.

Increasingly more adults and children develop type 2 diabetes due to unhealthy eating habits and sedentary lifestyle.

Diabetes mellitus type 2 is:

– When the body’s cells do not respond to insulin action, in which cells no longer uses blood glucose for energy production, called peripheral resistance to insulin action;

– Pancreas does not produce enough insulin.

Obesity, lack of exercise, sedentary lifestyle and family history of insulin-independent diabetes, increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.

In the first stage of the disease, blood sugar levels rise very slowly, so that the patient is asymptomatic. A third of patients with diabetes do not know they suffer from this disease.

Symptoms of diabetes include:

– Thirst

– Polyuria (urinating in greater quantity)

– Polyphagia (increased appetite)

– Weight loss

– Fatigue.


Other signs of diabetes:

– Many infections or slow healing wounds

– Tingling or numbness in the limbs

– Numerous skin infections or urinary tract

– Vaginitis.

Some patients who already have other serious chronic diseases are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Over time, complications can occur at kidneys, eyes,heart and nervous system.

Warning signs of these complications are:

– Numbness, tingling, pain, burning, swelling of arms and legs (diabetic neuropathy)

– Blurry view, , partial or total loss of vision or a feeling of view through a wave “(diabetic retinopathy)

– Chest pain or breathing difficulties: they may be signs of heart or vascular problems.

To confirm the suspicion of type 2 diabetes your doctor will ask a set of tests that measure blood glucose (blood sugar). Usually, the determination of fasting blood glucose in the morning. Sometimes further investigation is needed, but is not recommended because it takes time and has a high cost.

To make a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in addition to blood glucose the health-care provider alsa takes into account the medical history and physical examination of the patient.

If blood sugar is higher than normal but below that value which defines diabetes, this situation characterizes impaired glucose tolerance and high risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Other laboratory tests such as ambulatory measurement of blood glucose or urine glucose determination are not the best method of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, but glucose monitoring is essential ambulatory after being diagnosed with diabetes. Also, a complete cardiovascular examination is important for the detection of heart disease.

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