Type 2 diabetes mellitus – treatment

Detection of high risk or making a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in a person or family member can cause panic. It is normal for patients to react with anger or depression if they find they suffer from a chronic disease. Weight loss, proper diet and conducting a regular program of physical exercises are very effective ways to maintain low blood sugar.

 

There is no cure for diabetes, but there are several treatment modalities indicated in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Even if the patient is asymptomatic, it is necessary to start treatment for the disease and prevent complications.

In some patients, dietary changes or implemention of a regular exercise program are sufficient to control blood sugar levels.

At others, it is necessary to introduce drug treatment. Principles of treatment to be followed:

– Dietary changes with the distribution of carbohydrates throughout the day so that blood sugar levels remain constant

– Exercise program, which improves the body’s response to the action of insulin cells

– Adding drugs if diet does not meet or conduct a more intensive program of exercise to keep blood glucose within safe limits. Require one or more types of antidiabetic drugs to stimulate the body’s insulin production or to improve its use

– Introducing a dose of insulin or chronic therapy, insulin can be given only in injectable form or may be associated with oral antidiabetic drugs

– Regular medical examination to assess the effectiveness of treatment or early detection of ocular complications, cardiovascular, renal, nervous.

Prophyilaxis

– Maintaining an appropriate body weight.

– Regular exercise at least 30 minutes per day; carrying out some activities should not necessarily exhaustive or subscribe to a gym, any exercise that increases heart rate is useful.

– Healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables, whole grains, nuts may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. Excess sweets, red meat, junk food and excess food and soft drinks increase risk of developing diabetes.

Treatment

Patients need to know more about their disease to be more motivated, more compliant and to feel better and more secure knowing that they can keep the disease under control.

Ambulatory treatment includes:

– Proper diet in which carbohydrates are distributed throughout the day

– Performing a physical exercise program

– Daily monitoring of blood glucose

– Taking oral antidiabetic medication

– Avoid dehydration by increased fluid intake

– Low-dose aspirin.

It is recommended that people with diabetes wear the hand or neck strap with the identification plate to be more easily diagnosed in an emergency

Drug treatment

Some patients with type 2 diabetes respond well to anti diabetic medications, because they stimulate its own insulin production, reduce peripheral resistance to insulin action or slows carbohydrate absorption.

Some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are taking antihypertensive treatment and low-dose aspirin to prevent heart attack, stroke or peripheral large vessel obstructions.

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