Type 2 diabetes mellitus- risk factors and diagnosis

Risk factors that can not be controlled are:


– Family history (first degree relatives: father, brother, sister) with type 2 diabetes mellitus;

– Race and ethnicity – afroamericans, Hispanics, Native Americans, Asian Americans and Pacific Island populations face a grater risk to develop type 2 diabetes as Caucasian population;

– Old age increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, yet the number of children with type 2 diabetes is rising, usually they are obese, sedentary and have positive history of diabetes mellitus type 2;

– History of gestational diabetes or women who gave birth to a child with birth weight over 4 kg

– Polycystic ovary syndrome increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.

People who want to prevent the onset of diabetes can make blood glucose testing.

if you are in one of this situations, you should have a doctor check:

– People older than 45 years whose blood sugar was not measured or not never been investigated for diabetes for more than three years;

– People younger than 45 years with risk factors for type 2 diabetes who want to be tested;

– The presence of one or more symptoms of diabetes mellitus (intense thirst, urination in large quantities, excessive hunger, unexplained weight loss or tiredness);

– Presence of other signs of type 2 diabetes and wounds that will not heal or frequent infections;

-People who have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes deal with these symptoms of complications of this disease:

– Pain, numbness, tingling in the feet or hands;

– Dizziness or weakness

– Light flashes, spots, stripes in the visual field;

– Obese, sedentary, which aims to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus;

– The person who was diagnosed with pre-diabet who wants to reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.


To confirm the suspicion of type 2 diabetes your doctor will ask a set of tests that measure blood glucose (blood sugar). Usually, the determination of fasting blood glucose is in the morning. Sometimes further investigation is needed

If blood sugar is higher than normal but below that value which defines diabetes, this situation characterizes impaired glucose tolerance at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Early diagnosis

After 45 years of age it is recommended to determine blood glucose values every three years. You will also be tested for diabetes and hypertensive individuals with elevated cholesterol. The doctor will detect risk factors and determine the frequency at which tests will be performed.

American Diabetes Association recommends blood glucose measurements to be done often or to start at an early age in the following situations:

– Family history, parent, brother, sister with type 2 diabetes mellitus

– Obesity – body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 25

– Prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance)

– Hypertension

– High cholesterol

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