Sinusitis

Sinusitis is an infection of the sinuses caused by bacteria or viruses. There are some stages of sinusitis, for instance sub-acute sinusitis represents an evolution of the symptoms for 4- 12 weeks. When a patient suffers from sinusitis 3, 4 times a year, this is the case of recurrent sinusitis.
After every sinusitis attack the mucosa recovers.

In order to treat this kind of infection, is needed the evolution of paranasal sinuses beginning from the third week of gestation until the day that the problem occurred.

The bacteria responsible for sinusitis are part of the nasal flora. After sneezing, or coughing this bacteria deposit into the sinuses. The most common bacteria causing acute sinusitis are : streptococcus pneumoniae (responsible in 30-40% of cases), moraxella catarrhalis (12-20%), and haemophilus influenzae (guilty in 30% of cases). It’s possible that for a single case of sinusitis the infection to be determined by more than one bacteria. Sinusitis may occur because of a dental problem. In the case of nosocomial sinusitis, the responsible are gram-negative organisms like : escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Viruses like: rhinovirus, or parainfluenza, are the most common cause of acute sinusitis.

Chronic sinusitis can be a cause of death because of the fact that it is persistent and it changes the parameters of normal life. Chronic sinusitis is associated with meningitis, brain abscess, asthma. To avoid this life threatening situations, chronic sinusitis needs early and strong treatment. In 90% of situations, functional endoscopic sinus surgery has a good outcome, and the sinus health is restored. Chronic sinusitis can have a connection with allergies, exposure to a polluted environment, cystic fibrosis.


{loadposition in_articol} The treatment of chronic sinusitis has to help the sinus drainage, reduce the edema, and eliminate the infections. In order to reach this goals antibiotics and nasal irrigation are needed. If after the treatment there are no good results, a sinus surgery may be taken into consideration. For patients with intracranial complications is recommended the so called inpatient treatment.

It is important to distinguish between acute sinusitis and vasomotor rhinitis or allergies. Because they are similar in symptoms the doctor’s opinion will be very important to identify the condition that upsets the patient. A rhinoscopic examination can help by giving information about the nasal mucosa and the color of nasal discharge. It is also necessary to make an evaluation of ocular functions in order to avoid complications. Another used procedure is endoscopy. It may help tracking down the origin of the purulent discharge. It also helps in taking material for laboratory analysis (secretions from the sinus ostia).

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