Forms of Hyperthyroidism

The most common cause of thyrotoxicosis is Graves disease (50-60%). This is an autoimmune disorder caused by thyroid hormone hypersecretion. Thyroid hormones are secreted in excess due to autoantibodies and TSH hormone which stimulates the thyroid gland.
Thyroid hormone levels can be high in these conditions. This condition may be associated with other autoimmune diseases such as pernicious anemia, myasthenia gravis, vitilgo, adrenal insufficiency and type 1 diabetes.


Graves’s condition that is caused by a very intense activity of the thyroid gland is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. In this condition, the thyroid loses its ability to properly control the pituitary gland responses to TSH. Graves is a hereditary disorder and is five times more common among women than among men. It is considered an autoimmune deficiency and a characteristic of the disease is to find antibodies in the blood. These include the TSI antibodies; thyroid antibodies peroxide (TPO) and TSH receptor antibodies. Among the factors that trigger Graves’ disease we enumerate:



-Radiation in the neck area

-Specific drugs


This thyroid condition can be diagnosed by a standard control. In addition, examination of the blood may also identify the disease through increased TSI level.

Graves’s disorder may be associated with other diseases of the eyes or skin lesions.

Toxic multinodular goiter

Multinodular toxic goiter occurs in approximately 15-20% of cases of thyrotoxicosis. It is more common among older people, especially among those who have a diagnosis of goiter long time ago. Thyroid hormone excess develops slowly and often it is just slightly above normal when it is diagnosed.

Thyroid gland, like many other areas of the body, becomes more prominent with age. In most cases, these swellings do not produce thyroid hormones and require no treatment. Sometimes however, a nodule can become “autonomous”, which means it does not respond within normal parameters and produces thyroid hormones independently. This is even more likely to happen if the nodule is about 3 inches. If there is one nodule that produces thyroid hormones independently, this is called a functional disorder. If there are more nodes, the proper name for the condition is multinodular toxic goiter.

Excess thyroid hormone

It is often observed in some patients taking medicines that contain excess thyroid hormones. Hormonal overdoses often go unnoticed due to the fact that patients are not checking the administration of the thyroid hormone-based treatment. Also, many people choose to take large quantities of hormones in order to lose weight.

Abnormal TSH secretion

A pituitary tumor can produce oversecretion the TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone). Thus, the signal always gets the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormones. This condition is relatively rare compared to others but may be associated with other disorders of the pituitary gland. To diagnose this condition it is necessary to perform complex examinations by an endocrinologist to determine the secretion of TSH.

Thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid)

Another common cause for thyrotoxicosis is subacute thyroiditis (approx 15-20%), a condition that is manifested by an inflammation of the thyroid gland becomes. Inflammation of the thyroid gland can occur after a viral illness. In this disease the most common symptoms are fever and sore throat. The thyroid gland is also swollen. neck pains can also be present. Sometimes this gland inflammation is associated with a white cell accumulation known as lymphocytes. This inflammation causes the thyroid hormones to enter in the blood in a grater quantity as normal. Thyroiditis is relatively common after pregnancy, and about 8% of women suffer from this disorder after birth.

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