Follicular Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid cancer is the most serious endocrine disorder. Between 5 and 10% of people with thyroid cancer do not survive the disease. Thyroid neoplasm arising from follicular cells (carcinoma, adenoma and follicular / papillary carcinoma) shows a wide range of clinical and cytological features that overlap.
A clear distinction between malignant and benign disease based on cytological examination of a specimen of tissue is often achieved with great difficulty. For this reason, surgery for total or partial removal of the thyroid gland may be the only option to confirm or infirm the diagnosis of follicular thyroid cancer.

 

Follicular thyroid carcinoma (CBC) is a well-differentiated tumor. It is the second most common cancer of the thyroid gland after papillary carcinoma, and together make up 95% of all thyroid cancers.

Thyroid cancer most commonly affects people who had an intake too low or too high of external irradiation in the cervical or the thyroid area. After radiation the most common type is papillary carcinoma. Patients whose thyroid cancer has developed from radiation in head and neck area may face the risk to have extended cancer. Generally, about 5% of people with thyroid cancer have metastases beyond the cervical area.

Despite its well-differentiated features, FTC may be less invasive or can easily spread to other organs. Life expectancy of patients affected by this disease is related to their age, the chances are greater for young people than for the ones past 45 years. Patients with FTC are more likely to develop lung and bone metastases than those who have papillary thyroid cancer. Bone metastases are osteolyticly related to FTC.

Pathophysiology

Recent studies revealed that in the human body a genetic mutation is present, which can cause cancer. Also, this mutation may provide valuable information about the treatment ahead. About 10-15% of thyroid cancers are follicular forms.

Internationally, thyroid cancer is a relatively rare disorder: 1.5% of cancers in adults and 3% of cancers in children. The highest incidence of thyroid carcinoma in the world is among female population in China and Hawaii. Over the last century the incidence of follicular thyroid cancer began to grow. However, improved methods of diagnosis also have accumulated more information about this disease.

Unlike other types of cancer, the thyroid’s is often curable. Follicular thyroid carcinomas usually grow slowly and have a favorable prognosis. The mortality rate is 1.5% to 1.4% in men and women. Average survival rate after 10 years is 60%. Metastases are relatively rare.

FTC is more common in women than in men, but the proportion varies depending on the patient’s age. It has also been observed a higher incidence among whites than among black people.

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