Duane Syndrome - types

Studies show that the diagnose is set around the age of 10 in most cases. Beeing a congenital condition, it appears early in the fetus life. It is proven that it may appear around the sixth week of pregnancy because of the an improper development of the stemlike part of the brain that is connected to the spinal cord and responsible for the muscles that move the eye .

The initial cause is not the muscle but the nerve responsible for the electrical impulses.

Patients that suffer from Duane Syndrome may also have suffered in the past from reduced abduction, strabismus, and loss of binocular vision. It is possible that the Duane Syndrome is diagnose alone or along with other congenital problems related with auricular, ocular (pupillary anomalies, heterochromia, crocodile tears, cataracts), skeletal problems. There have been reported cases where the patient presented two syndromes like Wildervanck syndrome or Goldenhar syndrome along with Duane Syndrome.

The 3 types os Duane Syndrome are: DS type 1 when the patient can move his eye up and down toward the nose but not toward the ear, DS type 2 the movement toward the ear is limited, the eyeball goes into the globe when the patient tries to look right or left. The third type is characterized by both adduction and abduction.

In all the 3 types the palpebral fissure is narrowing.

In order to diagnose a patient with Duane Syndrome is necessary a medical evaluation and the family history. Also the visual acuity is measured, the motion range, globe retraction, and the head turn.

The Duane Syndrome is a very complex illness that needs the opinion of an ophthalmologist expert in strabismus in order to be correctly diagnosed and treated. The most successful surgery seems to be in the case of DS type 1, and also this is the most common type among the patients.

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